The first sections of rail to be installed in Cross River Rail’s tunnels have arrived on site, marking yet another key milestone for the transformational project. Read more
Australia’s first autonomous tunnel boring machines (TBM) will be used to build twin nine-kilometre rail tunnels between Sydney Olympic Park and Westmead.
A work blitz which kept some of New Zealand’s major transport networks closed over the summer break is now over and passenger services have returned.
A 10-day shutdown, ending on the 5th of January, enabled a crew of more than 200 to perform maintenance work across 15 different sites in Wellington.
Foundations were installed for 80 new masts for overhead power lines, some of which are more than 80 years old and needed to be replaced.
“Under normal circumstances this work would take 20 weeks to complete, without the network being closed to trains,” a KiwiRail spokesperson said.
The crew, comprising KiwiRail staff and contractors, also began work on a new pedestrian underpass at Trentham Station.As part of the work, rail tracks were temporarily removed, signal and power systems disconnected, and major earthworks completed before the tracks and power were reinstated so trains could travel through the section of line.
“We successfully fitted months of essential maintenance activities into just 10 days. Our staff and contractors operating at these sites completed a huge amount of work and deserve a well-earned break after working through the holiday period,” KiwiRail’s chief operating officer of Capital Projects, David Gordon, said.
The work was a resounding success, according to Gordon.
“We completed rigorous inspections of the track and overhead equipment and ran test trains through critical sites to ensure the network was safe for trains to be back up and running.”
Meanwhile, in Auckland, for City Rail Link tunnel works to commence the track around Mt Eden Station had to be re-aligned. This will also allow for the future redevelopment of the station.
Work is still ongoing in Ōtāhuhu as KiwiRail continues to work on the rail infrastructure so that Ōtāhuhu Station can facilitate more frequent train services once the City Rail Link opens in 2024.
Auckland Transport says it is operating a special timetable to accommodate this work.
From transferring 14,000-tonne historic buildings to new foundations to avoiding volcanic lava flows, the Auckland City Rail Link (CRL) project has been one of the more challenging transport infrastructure projects in the Australian/New Zealand pipeline.
Similar to other jurisdictions however, Auckland has had a significant population increase. Since 2010, Auckland’s population has risen by 50 per cent.
“We were at a stage where the road network was unable to cope,” City Rail Link’s CEO, Dr. Sean Sweeney, said at AusRAIL PLUS 2019.
When a new station was built in 2003, it took until 2014 for the line to be electrified and new rollingstock provided. This resulted in the doubling of patronage numbers.
“That passenger growth has continued ever since and City Rail Link has an ever-increasing need for public transport.”
Construction towards the $4.4 billion project officially commenced in 2018 with preliminary works ongoing since 2016. Its scope consists of the construction of twin 3.5 km long double-track rail tunnels underneath Auckland’s city centre, between Britomart Transport Centre and Mount Eden Railway Station.
Two new underground stations will be constructed at Aotea and Karangahape. Britomart will be converted from a terminus station into a through station and Mount Eden Station will be completely rebuilt with four platforms to serve as an interchange between the new CRL line and the existing Western Line.Wider network improvements are also part of the project.
It is slated for completion by 2024.
“Similar to Sydney and Melbourne, we’ve got some form of a loop. The Western line and the Southern line converge at one railway station with the Eastern line, so all of Auckland’s rail traffic goes into the Britomart station and then basically stops there so that the trains get backed up, full or not,” Sweeney said.
“Essentially, what City Rail Link is seeking to do is make Britomart a through station and extend the line back up to the rail network so you can run trains in both directions. Then, by enabling longer, nine car trains, with longer platforms, we can triple the capacity of the rail network.”
This means increasing capacity from 14,000 pph to 54,000 pph into the CBD, allowing for a train every ten minutes in peak.
“By our calculations that’s the equivalent of sixteen lanes of traffic into the city centre in peak,” Sweeney said.
This will double the number of people within 30 minutes of NZ’s biggest employment hub, bringing with it significant commercial and residential opportunities around stations.
Though early works commenced in 2016, Sweeney explains that about ten years ago a forward-thinking Auckland mayor decided to start the project without funding from central government.
“This project had quite an unusual start. The mayor realised that to make Britomart a through station someone had to start building tunnels underneath the city, so Auckland council went out and started construction without central government support which was a very brave thing to do.
“They managed it with a whole range of contracts and multiple contracting types, which made it a little bit confusing but it was what they had to do to get going, and it’s gotten off with different forms of construction, bored tunnels, cut and cover tunnels, etc. There’s a really complex grade separation into existing railway lines.”
One of the challenges for the project is that Auckland is built on volcanoes, “some of which erupted as recently as 800 years ago, which is very recent geologically”.
“So, to try and avoid some of the recent lava flows we built an incredibly complex geological model. We used the information that was available to us to plot the safest route. We used this model to locate the top striations, so to avoid some of the most recent lava flows. That was a very complex investigation and we have made that model available to the bidders.”
Another challenge is the current size of the infrastructure pipeline across a number of sectors in Australia and New Zealand.
Over an eighteen-month period, Sweeney tracked the pipeline from $80 billion in September 2017 to more than double that in August 2018, and then $220 billion in February 2019.
“I’ve never encountered this extent of growth and the way that this complicates what we have to do and the effect it has on our market is a real stretch. Certainly, historically New Zealand has built very little in 20 years and so, even getting major international contractors to take us seriously and come and bid for us was a big piece of work.”
However, early works are now “pretty much completed” according to Sweeney.
Moving forward, the agency has wrapped up the outstanding works (highlighted in yellow) – including the remaining tunnels, stations and rail systems infrastructure, as well as the related wider network and tracks – into one contract, Contract 3, to be delivered by a ‘Grand Alliance’.
The alliance consists of: Downer, AECOM, Tonkin + Taylor, WSP Opus, Soletanche Bachy, and Vinci Construction.
In October 2019, the demolition of thirty empty buildings demolished near the Mt Eden railway station began. This will ensure space for the construction of the southern portal for the City Rail Link’s twin tunnels. The cleared site will be used as a staging area for a Tunnel Boring Machine and other machinery.
The first phase of this demolition is due to be completed in March 2020 , and is being managed by the alliance.
Cross River Rail is Queensland’s largest ever public transport project. The Cross River Rail Authority’s program director David Lynch provided an overall project update at AusRAIL PLUS 2019.
While Queensland has enjoyed significant population growth in recent years, nearly 90 per cent of that growth has occurred within South East Queensland (SEQ). This region is expected to further increase its population by around 1.5 million over the next twenty years.
Cross River Rail will address a major bottleneck within this region. As such, it is Queensland’s highest priority infrastructure investment and the government has allocated $5.4 billion towards the project.
Currently, there is only one crossing over the Brisbane river and just four inner-city stations. Cross River Rail will unlock the bottleneck by providing a second river crossing, therefore doubling the capacity of the network and allowing more trains to run more often, as well as integrating with roads and bus services to enable a turn-up-and-go public transport system across the whole of SEQ.
The project incorporates a 10-kilometre rail line from Dutton Park to Bowen Hills, which includes 5.9 kilometres of twin tunnels under the Brisbane River and the CBD, with four new underground stations. A new European Train Control System (ETCS) signalling system is also being delivered to improve safety and assist in managing capacity constraints in the network. Numerous station upgrades between the Gold Coast and Brisbane and three new stations at the Gold Coast end the network are also planned.
According to Lynch, early works have now been officially completed, though these are relatively small in the overall scheme and context of the project.
“Our procurement processes are essentially complete as of the end of October, and construction is now underway across all three packages, with 4 to 5 years of construction and commissioning ahead,” Lynch said.
“All major work sites have now been handed over to the contractors.”
The mammoth project will be delivered under three major infrastructure packages of work: the Tunnel, Stations and Development (TSD) public-private partnership (PPP); the Rail, Integration and Systems (RIS) alliance; and the European Train Control System (ETCS).
The TSD PPP will deliver the underground section of the project, including the tunnel from Dutton Park to Normanby and the construction of four new underground stations. It includes all associated mechanical, electrical and safety systems, such as vertical transportation for passengers at underground stations, and above and underground track work, the tunnel portals and dive structures, traction power systems and selection rail operation and control infrastructure. The package also includes a property development opportunity above Albert Street station.
It will be delivered by the PULSE consortium, led by CIMIC Group companies: Pacific Partnerships, CPB Contractors, and UGL with international partners DIF, BAM and Ghella.
The RIS alliance will deliver the design, supply and installation of the supporting rail system, including rail civil and electrical works, rail operation systems and controls, as well as rail signalling and communications work. The alliance will also deliver accessibility upgrades to six suburban stations. The alliance will be responsible for the integration of Cross River Rail into Queensland Rail’s train network.
The RIS alliance, or “UNITY Alliance”, includes: CPB Contractors, UGL, AECOM and Jacobs, and partners HASSELL, RCS Australia, Acmena, Martinus Rail and Wired Overhead Solutions.
The ETCS signalling system will be introduced to enable increased capacity on the network. It will be rolled out over several stages starting with a pilot program on the Shorncliffe Line in 2022 with early works commencing in late 2019. As part of these early works, trains and tracks will be fitted out with ETCS equipment which sends continuous data about the position, direction and speed of trains and enables the system to calculate a safe maximum running speed for each train.
The ETCS will be delivered by Hitachi Rail STS, including Hitachi, Ansaldo STS and Systra.
A major component of the way in which Cross River Rail is being delivered is Project DNA, what Lynch explains refers to the CRRA’s Project Digital Network Approach.
“It is a complete digital twin of the Cross River Rail project. Now, we are currently working in the space of 3D and 4D, but developing additional dimensions as we move forward.”
The approach was inspired by lessons learnt from other projects, “where it’s been identified that having a fully integrated and holistic model very early in the process would have been of great advantage.”
Lynch explains how the digital twin was developed, “where previously we built separate systems and models, here we’re using a common data environment.”
“Essentially, it is one model with multiple applications to be used by multiple teams, so whether in the space of project delivery, program controls, communications and engagement or future precinct and planning and delivery, we’re using the one integrated model.”
“The approach we took to this was actually to develop this model before contracts were awarded.”
The model is built in three layers according to Lynch, the first being the Building Information Modeling (BIM) at the core of the model.
“The second layer gives us geographic information system (GIS) mapping, which enables us to move from the 2D into the 3D environment, while the third layer uses the unreal gaming engine to provide an interactive and virtual reality experience.”
The collaborative approach enabled by Project DNA helps in the design, construction, management and operation of the assets built, says Lynch. It will also improve the on-time and on-budget delivery of the project.