Rio deems AutoHaul deployed on Pilbara network

Mining giant Rio Tinto says its AutoHaul autonomous train project is now fully deployed in WA’s Pilbara region.

The company has for some time been working on making its mine-to-port iron ore railway fully autonomous, and made great strides in 2018 with the first loaded journey made in July.

Rio Tinto Iron Ore managing director of rail, port and core services Ivan Vella said with more than 1 million kilometres now travelled autonomously, AutoHaul had demonstrated it could move product in a controlled and safe manner.

“The safe and successful deployment of AutoHaul across our network is a strong reflection of the pioneering spirit inside Rio Tinto,” Vella said. “It’s been a challenging journey to automate a rail network fo this size and scale in a remote location like the Pilbara.”

Rio says it will continue to refine AutoHaul operations in coming months.

KiwiRail providing live data for GDP tracking platform

New Zealand operator KiwiRail says real-time reporting on freight volumes and movements will inform a live economic growth tracker being launched by Massey University.

KiwiRail says it will be providing the data to GDPLive, a tracking system launched on December 17 by the university.

KiwiRail Group general manager for sales and commercial, Alan Piper, said the operator moves 18 million tonnes of freight each year, representing roughly 16 per cent of the country’s freight task.

“As a critical part of New Zealand’s freight transport network, KiwiRail is able to provide data that helps provide a picture of how our economy is performing,” Piper said.

“We transport around 25% of New Zealand’s exports so we’re a vital part of the bigger picture being presented by this initiative, which is thought to be the first of its kind in the world.”

The GDPLive system is designed to use machine-learning algorithms and live data sources, to give the user an estimate of how the economy is performing on a daily basis.

Users can view historic data, current national and regional GDP figures and forecasts, as well as getting an overview of the performance of a large range of industry sectors.

Along with KiwiRail, the platform is being informed by payment transaction data, container movements through Ports of Auckland and Ports of Tauranga, traffic flows, immigration and import/export data.

Sydney Trains digital integration deal signed

Transport for NSW has announced the signing of a $16 million contract to help define and delivery Sydney Trains’ Digital Systems program.

Network Rail Consulting has been awarded the System Integrator contract, and will bring experience from delivering similar systems on Thameslink and on the Madrid suburban network, Transport said on Monday.

The program will replace trackside signalling equipment with the latest European Train Control System (ETCS) Level 2 technology, implement Automatic Train Operation to assist drivers in providing faster and more consistent journeys, and introduce a Traffic Management System for more effective incident management and service regulation across the network.

As the program’s System Integrator, Network Rail will lead collaboration with key partners in the Digital Systems Program, part of the NSW Government’s $880 million investment in technology improvements to modernise the Sydney Trains network.

Digital Systems will be delivered in stages with services coming online progressively from the early 2020s, Transport for NSW said.

Aussie-developed rapid deployment trolley already on Melbourne Metro

Rail equipment manufacturer and distributor Melvelle Equipment has developed a cutting-edge rapid deployment rail trolley, manufactured in Australia and already in use on the busy Melbourne Metro network.

The self-propelled trolley can travel up to 100 kilometres with a full payload of 700 kilograms. At its maximum speed, it can travel up to 80 kilometres.

Despite this impressive range, the machine is just 160 kilograms including batteries, and can be assembled by two people in just three minutes, with no tools required. Four people can assemble the machine in just two minutes.

The machine can be removed from the track in three minutes by two people, or as little as 90 seconds by four people. Its heaviest component weighs just 40 kilograms.

The Melvelle team of five engineers worked for 18 months on the design. Melvelle Equipment CEO Andrew Melvelle tells Rail Express the trolley, patent pending, is designed to be sophisticated yet uncomplicated.

“The original brief was from Sydney Trains, who wanted a lightweight trolley that could be folded up and put in the back of a ute, with a total range of 20 kilometres at 10km/hr, with fast assembly and disassembly,” he says.

With final approvals still underway for Sydney Trains, the first units of the trolley were actually delivered to Melbourne Metro in March 2018.

“The Level Crossing Removal Authority approached us regarding the need to have emergency response vehicles at every train station for the overhead [skyrail] system, because you can’t drive a truck up there,” Melvelle explains.

“The machine is stored at the stations, and if there’s an emergency the responders can wheel it out of the storage area, set it up on track, and travel down the track to the emergency, bringing all their service gear – for example a stretcher – and their people.”



The machine’s chassis is designed for multi-gauge applications, and platforms are designed specifically for the gauge the machine is being operated on. Safety efficiency is at the forefront of the design.

Hand throttle via joystick including horn, traction control, regenerative braking, dead-man pedal, emergency brakes, and full interlocking of all parts of the assembly, meaning if a wheel or a handrail is not correctly installed, the trolley will not move and a light panel will display the location of the error. There are two sets of controls on the trolley, but only one joystick, which must be moved by the operator in order to change direction, up or down the railway.

Melvelle says his company plans to export the product, with interest already registered as far away as UAE and England for the system.

“The trolley is designed manufactured in our factory in Newcastle and I it is the lightest and safest trolley on the market,” he says.

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ARA Smart Rail Route Map report released

The Australasian Rail Association (ARA) has released a report on long-term priorities and actions for the development of digital and telecommunication technologies within the rail industry.

Produced in collaboration with industry, and supported by the Rail Manufacturing Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) and Deakin University, the Smart Rail Route Map provides a 30-year guide for helping the rail industry plan for the rapidly changing technology landscape.

The Smart Rail interim report identifies ten programs, actions and initiatives identified by industry members as high-level priorities for development:

  • Disruption management for passenger rail
  • Customised information services for passenger rail
  • Predictive journey planning techniques for passenger rail
  • Real-time information for freight customers
  • Data sharing across the supply-chain
  • Identify key data requirements for T&MN
  • AI and automation for system management
  • Management for technology legacy systems
  • Up skill the industry
  • Improve safety through advanced technology

Twelve longer-term initiatives have also been mapped out in the report.

ARA CEO Danny Broad said the map provided an overarching framework that will help prepare the rail industry for the surging “technological revolution” in the sector.

“Inherent in this is an understanding of the risks and obstacles that are likely to emerge. In a changing technological paradigm, Smart Rail provides a framework in relation to standardisation, integration and harmonisation,” Broad said.

“Smart Rail was developed by industry, for industry, with over 250 industry representatives involved in its creation. It has been fantastic to witness the high level of industry engagement.”

The Map has been developed using Deakin University’s systems-modelling approach, while the Rail Manufacturing CRC is providing funding under the federal government’s Business Cooperative Research Centres Program.

Rail Manufacturing CRC CEO Stuart Thomson said that the leading role of the industry in developing the Map would help its aims be realised going forward.

“Collaboration of this kind is the first step to ensure the outcomes of Smart Rail are implemented and will add value to Australasia’s rail industry,” Thomson said.

The ARA will be establishing an executive management committee to drive the implementation of the Smart Rail Route Map initiatives.

Implementation of Project i-TRACE under two months away

The Project i-TRACE team is ramping up industry engagement in the final weeks of the year, ahead of the implementation of GS1 standards in 2019.

Project i-TRACE is a joint campaign by the Australasian Railway Association and not-for-profit multinational GS1, to standardise the capture of data across the rail industry, with the view to
improve efficiency, lower costs, and deliver better customer service.

Since it was founded to administer the barcode in 1974, GS1 has developed and maintained a range of symbols and systems aimed at improving the efficiency, safety and visibility of supply chains across both physical and digital channels.

The GS1 Australia rail team will be in Canberra at AusRAIL 2018 to talk about Project i-TRACE and how the implementation of GS1 standards in 2019 will improve asset management in the rail sector.

GS1 has been working closely with the ARA and its board members to communicate to the industry the importance of Project i-TRACE.

AusRAIL delegates will hear from GS1 Australia’s Senior Manager – Freight Logistics and Industrial Sectors, Bonnie Ryan. Ryan will take part in a panel on smart rail on day two of the event, to discuss technologies of the future alongside rail operation and research experts.

As the program move towards implementation in 2019 GS1 expects a pick up in pace.

“Engagement is strong,” Ryan told Rail Express ahead of AusRAIL. “Key suppliers like Siemens, Vossloh, Pandrol, OneSteel and Thermit have started their implementation journeys.”

At a recent Project i-TRACE supplier workshop in Melbourne, Infrastructure Procurement and Inventory Manager from Metro Trains Melbourne, Adam Morley, said “MTM sees these standards and the project as a great benefit for the industry. It will allow us to have a greater control around the quality of the materials that we are using in our network, ensure safety through tracebility of materials based on the barcoding and build stronger partnerships with our industry suppliers.”

At the same workshop, V/Line Inventory Manager Ramesh Reddy said: “In the last two years, we started to look at the types of standards to bring across. GS1 labelling and barcoding is now used to scan and see what sort of product it is.

“We are looking for standardised information from our suppliers so we can trace products from inventory through the network.”

ARA Chief Executive Danny Broad said improvements on how the rail industry traces and tracks assets through their lifecycles is critical to unlocking efficiency and safety improvement, saying: “This is why the Australasian Railway Association is working closely with GS1 Australia to standardise how materials are identified in the value chain through Project i-TRACE.”

For more information about Project i-TRACE, contact Bonnie Ryan, Senior Manager – Trade, Transport & Heavy Industry, GS1 Australia at bonnie.ryan (at), or Duncan Sheppard, General Manager – Freight & Industry Programs, Australasian Railway Association (ARA) at dsheppard (at)

Applying tried and tested industrial automation technology to railway systems

Automation technology firm Pilz says control systems from industry are possible options for the modernisation of infrastructure on the network.

Existing signalling and control technology in the rail transport industry, particularly on regional lines, is largely based on classic signal box technology. But Pilz says automation systems like its PSS 4000-R can help to significantly reduce the cost pools that have so far dominated in purchasing, engineering, operation and servicing.

Signal and control solutions in rail transport have so far been largely proprietary: the technologies have been designed, developed and manufactured specifically for use in rail transport.

Normative requirements, project specific features and a limited number of options for standardisation are cost-related factors in today’s applications. Even today, classic relay technology with positive-guided contacts is still widely used in railway and signal engineering.

As part of modernisation measures, however, Pilz says the trend is now towards replacing wearing, cable-intensive hardware with powerful software.

Safety and economy complement each other: given their widespread availability in the industrial environment and the use of standardised and hence proven industrial components, programmable logic controllers (PLCs) such as those used in industry, e.g. for mechanical engineering, are characterised by lower acquisition costs. Software tools simplify and reduce the configuration work, improve diagnostic options and facilitate maintenance and repair.

SIL 4 capability: the automation system

PSS 4000-R Pilz developed the automation system PSS 4000 in accordance with EN 61508 for industrial automation applications. To meet the specific requirements of rail transport, Pilz developed special modules with an –R (Railway) in the type description.

The PSS 4000-R systems are designed to be robust enough to withstand the electromagnetic interference, extreme temperatures and mechanical load that typically occur in a railway environment.

The PSS 4000-R has railway-specific safety approvals as a product feature, making the automation system SIL 4-capable across the whole application.

The rail solution PSS 4000-R comprises a number of function modules: Safe PLCs, I/O devices and various I/O modules for safety and automation functions are available as hardware components.

Devices communicate with each other via the real-time Ethernet communication system SafetyNET p, based on 10/100 BASE-T. TCP/IP, Modbus/TCP and UDP raw data, among others, can be exchanged with other devices parallel to the safety protocol. SafetyNET p can be used on standardised network components such as Ethernet switches or DSL modems, thus offering a high degree of freedom in terms of extension and topology. The latest expansion stage also allows the flexible RaSTA protocol to be used.

User-friendly programming

Pilz says its software platform PAS4000 can help operators create, configure and set the parameters for a safety-related application, and download that to the control system.

The software is responsible for creating and processing an application program, which includes reading in the digital and analogue process signals, logical and chronological processing of these signals in the logic unit, outputting digital and analogue process signals to control the process and transferring safety-relevant data via SafetyNET p.

Flexibility allows for variety of applications

Pilz says the openness and flexibility of this system has seen the PSS 4000 automation system used not only in classic mechanical engineering, but in car production, the chemical industry, on cable cars, dockside cranes and sluice systems.

For railways, the certified -R modules can be used in a variety of applications with different safety integrity levels. These include control or monitoring functions in signalling systems, such as monitoring signals at level crossings, control and safety technology or signal box connection, control functions of rolling stock and track laying machinery.

Modernisation during ongoing operation

Pilz says the PSS 4000-R automation can facilitate the staggered modernisation of railway control: measures can be implemented step by step and selectively.

The entire electronic periphery, comprising signalling, control and communication technology as well as the cabling between the control cabinets, remains untouched when the modules are installed, meaning the automation system also fulfils the role of an interface between the old control boxes.

The automation system PSS 4000-R is used in Europe to protect barriered and unbarriered level crossings, handling control and safety functions along the Golden Pass line in Switzerland, for instance, and neuralgic station nodes of the metro system in the Belgian city of Antwerp.

Together with DB Netz and Pilz partner Thales, Pilz has already realised projects for SPZA (memory-programmable central block adaptation) geared towards developing a safe platform for control tasks. The PSS 4000-R is capable of efficiently replacing obsolete relay-based signal box technology.

Contact: R.Stevenson (at)

Remote control failed prior to Devonport derailment

The remote being used to control a TasRail train stopped working, and its operator was unable to force an emergency stop, before it ran away uncontrolled and was eventually derailed, injuring two bystanders in September.

The Australian Transport Safety Bureau on Friday published its preliminary report into the incident, where a TasRail bulk cement service ran away from its loading facility at Railton just prior to 9am on September 21, 2018.

The train, weighing 1,132 tonnes and 220 metres long, travelled roughly 21 kilometres in 23 minutes and was then routed into a dead-end siding in Devonport, where it derailed.

Two bystanders sustained minor injuries from fence debris. The train travelled in a derailed state for roughly 60 metres in a public area beyond the dead-end siding.



According to the preliminary report into the incident, the train was being controlled at the cement loading facility by its driver from within the facility, via a remote control.

The train consisted of a TR class locomotive, 16 THFY class bulk cement wagons, and a trailing driver’s van.

It operated between the loading facility in Railton and the unloading facility at Devonport in a push-pull configuration, with motive power provided by one locomotive, at either the back or the front of the train, depending on the direction of travel.

The portable remote control operation allows the driver to be situated at the front of the train – be it the locomotive or the driver’s van – regardless of direction. It also allows the driver to control the train from outside, during loading and unloading.

Just prior to the runaway incident, the driver was progressively aligning wagons beneath the cement loading chutes.

“While the last pair of wagons were being aligned, the train came to a stop past the intended stop location,” the Bureau’s preliminary report states.

“The driver recalled that … he selected reverse to re-align the final two wagons with the loading chutes. However, after selecting reverse, the train became unresponsive to his remote commands.”

According to the report, the driver says he tried multiple times to reset the remote equipment, before deciding to walk towards the lead locomotive to attempt a cold restart of the remote control receiver.

“Before he started to walk … the train slowly began rolling away towards Devonport,” the report states. “The driver recalled trying to activate the emergency stop features of the remote system by removing power to the portable remote control system’s transmitter. However, the train did not respond to these commands and gradually gained speed as it rolled away from the loading facility.”

TasRail says it has suspended use of the locomotive remote control system – which was only used on the Devonport cement service – until the investigation is concluded.

With the preliminary report now complete, the ATSB says its investigation will move on to consider:

  • serviceability of the locomotive, wagons, remote control system, and the interface between them at time of the accident
  • remote control system and locomotive braking operational inspection and testing arrangements
  • design and compatibility of the locomotive, remote control system, and the interface between them
  • implementation management and on-going monitoring of remote control system and locomotive
  • driver qualifications, experience and medical information
  • recovery controls:
    • runaway protection at Railton
    • detection of unauthorised train access to main line from yard
    • effectiveness of emergency response systems.

Sydney’s new Rail Operations Centre on track to open this year

NSW transport minister Andrew Constance has confirmed Sydney’s new Rail Operation Centre (ROC) at Green Square is on track to be fully operational by the end of the year.

Constance visited the site on October 29, the same day the first of 720 staff moved into the new facility, which will soon manage the Sydney Trains network.

“The control centre will bring together all the critical operations teams under one roof,” Constance said.

“This will improve coordination, lead to quicker response times to critical issues on the train network, and help us better recover and keep trains moving for our customers.

“We will be able to provide customers with almost real time information and keep them updated throughout.”

The ROC includes a digital screen which, at 33 metres long and four metres high, is said to be the largest in the Southern Hemisphere.

The screen will be used by controllers to monitor the network, pull up CCTV and multi-channel live-streamed images to better understand incidents.

“The control centre will be able to track every train moving on the network,” Constance said.

“The ROC will revolutionise rail operations in Australia. It’s a concept that has been operating successfully in cities like London and Tokyo, and now NSW will be the first state to roll it out.”

The CSIRO model shaping future supply chain strategies

Rail Express spoke with the CSIRO about the model aiming to quantify and map out constraints across Australia’s vast supply chains.

Agricultural production in northern NSW and southern Queensland comprises a diverse array of commodity types, including sheep, pigs, grains, cotton, dairy, and horticulture.

Road and rail networks, and the processing and storage facilities along them, form the lifeline of these regional industries, linking farms to foreign markets via the Port of Newcastle and the Port of Brisbane, and various domestic markets across Australia.

Distances of over 1,000 kilometres between production, processing and the marketplace are a regular feature of Australian supply chains, with transport costs often making up approximately 40 per cent of the market price.

For producers trying to get their goods to processing and storage facilities, or directly to market, this complex of transportation networks, and their varying constraints and advantages in different locations, can make logistical decisions difficult.

The Transport Network Strategic Investment Tool, or TraNSIT, was first developed by the CSIRO in 2012 and 2013 under commission from federal and state governments to identify bottlenecks in livestock supply-chains across northern NSW and southern Queensland.

Today, it now covers 98 per cent of all agricultural and horticultural supply chains.

The TraNSIT model serves to map out and quantify the various constraints affecting supply chains. Since 2012, the CSIRO has collaborated with more than a hundred different industry associations and government agencies to gain access to datasets from industry and government.

“In relation to rail transport, TraNSIT has mostly been applied to grain supply chains so far,” said Dr Andrew Higgins, the CSIRO’s lead researcher working with the tool.

“It looks at the potential benefits of upgrading loading facilities and improving load times, and the impacts of future train configurations – how longer trains with more locomotives and higher axle-load limits can improve supply chain efficiency.”

In the rail sector, the Australian Rail Track Corporation (ARTC) has used the tool to support its work on the Hunter Valley rail network, where it has been focussed on leveraging the significant expenditure within its heavy haul network to benefit wider regional supply chains.

Over the past three years, the ARTC has introduced a number of initiatives to encourage modal shift to rail, including the lifting of axles loads and train lengths across the Intrastate network corridors between Dubbo-Gulgong and Narrabri-Moree.

In carrying out these initiatives, the ARTC has worked close with rail operators at the agricultural sector to determine the impediments to the utilisation of rail.  And, using the TraNSIT tool, the ARTC has been able to quantify the total transport costs for these agricultural commodities over their whole journeys, based not only on individual trip costs but across total production and likely end market destination, demonstrating the benefits of these upgrade projects and pointing towards further solutions.

“The tool itself can not only indicate which infrastructure is the limiting factor but will give a transport cost (road or rail) according the route taken and the maximum payload and time taken for a for a specific route,” ARTC’s business development manager Michael Clancy said.

“Individual infrastructure owners can then apply different parameters to test if a particular infrastructure change will provide an economic benefit great enough to proceed with further investigation or project initiation.”

According to Clancy, the key advantage of TraNSIT is its ability to easily test scenarios across transport mode and commodity-type, providing a visual demonstration of cost impacts and outcomes.

“All supply chains will eventually follow the least cost path to market, and while it may not currently include handling costs incurred during modal transfer, the tool can definitely provide insight into how lower payloads or increased transit time impacts on the cost of moving products,” Clancy said.

“For ARTC, it assists on not only what we can directly change on our asset but how we can work with our supply chain partners and governments to provide solutions.  Some of these solutions are not necessarily purely infrastructure related, some are operational and supply chain coordination related that impact time or reliability.”

Overall, TraNSIT is in its early stages regarding its possible applications within the rail industry. Nonetheless there are expectations that further opportunities would arise with the continued accumulation of commodity data.

“I think historically we’ve been limited in our ability to rapidly test scenarios and seek a coordinated response to supply chain issues,” Clancy said.

“The relatively long life of rolling stock, and the intergenerational permanency of rail infrastructure projects mean that we can use the tool to make better informed design and purchase decisions.”

Among the benefits of the tool is its ability to definitely demonstrate the benefits of improving road access to modal transfer locations, including the unit cost for stopping multi-combinational vehicles from transiting through built up areas to rail heads.

“We have situations across the country where truck drivers are required to un-hitch trailers on the outskirts of town and make two trips to a transfer goods,” Clancy explained.

“TraNSIT can not only identify unit costs, but the total cost for all product transported through the area, providing valuable information to both industry and councils as to the additional costs being incurred.”

Indeed, recently the TraNSIT has begun to be used by shire councils in northern NSW and southern Queensland to quantify how transport regulatory change and upgrades to roads, rail and other supply-chain infrastructure can boost the efficiency of the transportation of goods.

“Councils often have particular locations that have been earmarked for potential freight hubs,” Higgins said. “For example, the tool can tell us – with given inputs such as location, particular loading facilities and road linkages – what can be benefits of using a potential freight intermodal hub over a road-only system for supply chains of cotton or gains or other commodities,” Higgins said.

The impacts of possible future improvements to rail networks were among the aspects explored by a TraNSIT study conducted by the CSIRO in collaboration with ARTC. It found that some facilities in the southern Queensland and northern NSW regions are limited by train and wagon size.

The study points to improvements that could be made in the future with longer, faster trains with higher capacity and with upgrades to roads that supply grain to these sites, pointing towards better integration between roads and rail. Savings of up to $10 per tonne could be made, it found, by moving from 42-wagon to 76-wagon bulk freight trains with a faster loading time of five hours.

“The TraNSIT tool is being used to look at the areas in which Inland Rail can be beneficial in terms of the overall supply chain versus purely using road,” Higgins said. “We can use it to find out where the biggest benefits will be for industry and supply chains to use the rail corridor.”

Inland Rail

With construction soon to begin on the 1,700-kilometre Inland Rail freight rail line between Brisbane and Melbourne, collaborative work is now underway between the Department of Infrastructure Regional Development and Cities and the CSIRO to explore the use of the TraNSIT model in building an understanding of regional supply chains, helping industry make the most of the project’s opportunities.

Called the Inland Rail Supply Chain Mapping Pilot Project, it will build on previous TraNSIT studies while expanding its application to the future Parkes to Narromine section of the Inland Rail project.

“The Australian government is committed to working with industry and the regions to realise the benefits from the delivery of Inland Rail as it moves towards construction in 2018. This is another step toward delivering this significant investment in Australia’s freight future,” federal transport minister Michael McCormack said.

“The Inland Rail Supply Chain Mapping Pilot Project will be informed by local community leaders and supply chain participants. The Australian government will work closely with state governments and local councils to ensure the project informs planning and freight network strategies.”

The hope is that this application of TraNSIT will further demonstrate how Inland Rail will reduce transportation costs and become a catalyst for further business investment and a subsequent revival in regional rail transport, not only between Melbourne to Brisbane but throughout regional Australia.

“The project will involve taking information about supply chains as they are and mapping them using the future planned Inland Rail corridor,” the CSIRO’s Andrew Higgins said. “It will focus on movements that will use particular parts of the corridor, and it will also look at what the potential is for different types of commodities that currently are transported via road to be put on the rail corridor.”

It will also test the potentials of surrounding, complementary upgrades – such as road improvements – in heightening the benefits of Inland Rail.

A CSIRO/ARTC study into northern NSW’s cotton industry using TraNSIT indicated the enhanced competitiveness of Inland Rail.

The baseline cost of rail transport was calculated at $8.65 million per year or $234/tonne. With the introduction of Inland rail, the rail transport cost reduces to $5.77 million per year or $156/tonne or a potential 33% transport cost reduction.

The ARTC’s Michael Clancy said that TraNSIT could help illuminate the benefits of Inland Rail and the problems it might be able to address via the development of supply chain strategies, especially in a context of continuing difficult climatic conditions throughout regional NSW and Queensland.

“We are currently experiencing one of the worst droughts in history within NSW and Queensland and seeing grain transported from South Australia to Northern NSW in 3000t payloads,” Clancy said.

“Inland Rail will enable +6000t payloads on 1:100 grades. In a normal season where will feed grain be sourced from? Will high grade, high protein, high value wheat still be trucked from the Golden Triangle between Northstar & Weemalah or will it be railed from Victoria direct to feedlots or distribution hubs?

“These are some of the questions that TraNSIT can assist in providing key understandings and with cooperation across industry drive solutions.”