Major projects

Infrastructure works an “essential service”

Major infrastructure projects are ensuring the safety of their staff while continuing to progress upgrades and significant works while COVID-19 mitigation measures close down other sectors.

The Cross River Rail Delivery Authority (CRRDA) is adhering government guidelines and advice by implementing new safety measures at its sites.

Segregated work zones, restricted access for non-essential workers, and a ban on non-essential access is enabling the 1,500 people working on the Cross River Rail project to continue.

Major works contractors are strengthening their own health and safety procedures while CRRDA office staff are working from home, or only attending the office when essential tasks cannot be completed remotely.

In Perth, construction on the Metronet project is continuing, business as usual, with no restrictions on works being conducted.

In Victoria, the Corey Hannett, director-general, Major Transport Infrastructure Authority, which delivers projects including the Level Crossing Removal Program, the Metro Tunnel project, and the Regional Rail Revival program, among others, told Rail Express that the Authority is ensuring that construction continues with no impact to projects.

“The construction sector is currently considered an essential service and we are working closely with industry partners, unions, employers and workers to protect both their safety and jobs,” said Hannett.

A safety team of 70 is ensuring workers and sites comply with social distancing requirements.

“Project sites have strict rules in place around social distancing, increased industrial cleaning, provisions of personal protective equipment,” said Hannett.

Additionally, an alliance of construction unions and employers groups have united to ensure that safe practices are adopted to keep construction sites open.

In New Zealand, works have been temporarily suspended on the City Rail Link project, however the delivery team is ensuring that when lockdown measures are lifted, teams can get back to work immediately.

“We are doing everything we can to ensure that we are well placed to come out of the blocks very fast when the restart call is given,” said CRL chief executive Sean Sweeny.

Freight continues as borders shut

With states closing their borders to interstate travel, those needing to continue to travel, including rail freight operators, into Western Australia and the Northern Territory are being asked to complete an arrival form.

The respective forms for WA and the NT can be found here and here.

From today, March 25, Queensland has also closed its borders. This has affected passenger rail services from NSW, which are now terminating at Casino, rather than continuing to Brisbane.

Due to the extensive connections between Queensland and New South Wales along the border at Tweed Heads/Coolangatta, local movements for shopping, work, medical appointments and travel home are not affected.

In addition, to limit the spread of the virus train and tram services in South East Queensland are only accepting pre-paid tickets to avoid the handling of cash.

While these measures have been put in place to ensure community safety, the Australian Logistics Council (ALC) has continued to press for freight services to be allowed to continue unaffected, due to their critical nature delivering food and supplies around Australia.

CEO of the ALC, Kirk Coningham, has said that he is happy with the measures put in place so far.

“It is pleasing that states and territories have all recognised the essential nature of the freight task by exempting freight and logistics from border closure arrangements,” he said.

“We now need states and territories to ensure that exemption is given practical effect, and make certain freight vehicles are not delayed for lengthy periods at border check points.”

Freight operators have been putting in place extra social distancing measures and cleaning measures to ensure that freight vehicle operators cannot spread COVID-19. With this in mind, delays at borders should be minimised, said Coningham.

“Those operating freight vehicles have rigorous restrictions around the number of hours they can work. Significant delays at border check points could end up producing delays of 24-hours or more in the movement of freight,” he said.

Rethinking recruitment in rail freight

Australian Logistics Council CEO Kirk Coningham highlights that government and industry have to work together to attract a diverse, young workforce.

It will not come as news to those involved in freight rail that we need to attract a younger, more diverse talent pool to protect the sustainability of the industry’s workforce. At the same time, we must recognise that this won’t simply happen of its own accord.

There is ample research available that indicates the millennial generation of workers is more mobile and more likely to change jobs and industries than any of their forebears. A 2016 survey undertaken by Gallup noted that 21 per cent of millennials had left their job to do something else within the preceding 12 months – a figure three times higher than that for non-millennials.

More strikingly, the same research reported that six in ten millennials say they are open to new job opportunities outside their current organisation – again, far higher than figures reported for other cohorts.

On the face of it, this should be positive news for the rail transport. However, the fact that younger workers are willing to take a look at other industries will only be of benefit if they like what they see.

Regrettably, the freight transport sector suffers from a continuing perception problem around its ability to welcome female participants to its workforce, as well as those from diverse cultural backgrounds.

This is a considerable barrier to the attraction and retention of younger workers, who make their career choices (at least in part) on an organisation’s commitment to gender equity and diversity.

As well as dealing with diversity issues, the sector’s workforce must also address the fact that the increasing influence of technology across the industry will demand a broader range of skills than may have previously been required.

Although these efforts must be industry-led, there is certainly scope for governments to play a greater role in making certain the transport sector’s workforce is prepared for a changing world.

Many industry participants continue to note that the transport sector has not received appropriate levels of attention when it comes to skills and training support, especially in comparison to the hospitality, retail, and human services sectors.

As part of the National Freight and Supply Chain Strategy, the Commonwealth government has undertaken to develop a new Transport Sector Skills Strategy, in partnership with industry.

In its pre-Budget submission to the federal government, ALC has emphasised that the development of this Strategy must take particular account of workforce shortages being experienced by freight transport operators, and that the Federal Government must prioritise an increase in training opportunities available to those wishing to enter its workforce.

This includes supporting education and awareness campaigns that combat stereotypes about the nature of the industry, and which prioritise the recruitment of new workforce participants from diverse backgrounds.

Attracting a younger more diverse workforce for this industry clearly demands a different approach to engaging potential recruits.

ALC is committed to playing its part by combatting stereotypes about the industry and highlighting the impact technology and innovation are having and aligning these with the skills and ambitions of new workforce participants.

ARA

Rail industry continuing during COVID-19

While the rail industry is still coming to terms with what impact COVID-19 will have on the sector, the industry’s peak body, the Australasian Railway Association (ARA) has been ensuring that it continues to act as a collaborative voice for the industry.

At a federal government level, ARA CEO Caroline Wilkie has been part of the Commonwealth Department of Infrastructure transport industry teleconference, and is providing a voice for the rail industry at senior governmental levels.

For the industry itself, the ARA has held passenger transport and freight industry teleconferences to discuss the impact of COVID-19 on these sectors. The discussions enabled members to share learnings from direct operator experience.

Further meetings are planned for the Rail Industry Group and Rail Contractors Group.

All ARA working group and committee meetings will continue, however via video-conferencing, with details sent to members.

While face-to-face meetings are temporarily on hiatus, the ARA is coordinating a webinar program, and asking for contribution from members for topics and speakers. The webinars will cover new redevelopments and host debates on pressing topics.

The ARA has communicated that passenger rail operators are experiencing significant reductions in patronage as well as social distancing between customers on networks in Australia and New Zealand. Services have not been reduced, however.

For freight, contractor, and supply chain operators, challenging conditions are being reported, and some stimulus measures may be available.

For freight operators, the Australian Logistics Council has been working with the federal and state governments to ease conditions for logistics operators. NSW, Queensland, and South Australia have announced lifted restrictions for freight movements to allow for supermarkets to restock. These allowances may ease some pressure on logistics companies working further up the supply chain.

“The most pressing challenge for logistics companies at present is getting stock into stores quickly enough to satisfy extraordinarily heightened levels of consumer demand. The existence of curfews that prohibit deliveries during certain hours are a barrier to addressing that challenge,” said ALC CEO Kirk Coningham.

“Australia’s freight and logistics sector is working around-the-clock to deal with the enormous challenges presented by COVID-19 and it is important our governments provide practical support to help the industry’s efforts to support local communities.”

High school students begin rail qualification

The next generation of rail professions have begun a pilot program during high school to prepare them to work in the rail industry.

Victorian students in years 9 and 10 are undertaking the Certificate II in Heavy and Light Rail Fundamentals (pre-vocational).

The course will count towards a VCE qualification and is delivered at the Rail Academy in Newport. The units of study involve training in railway operations, including customer service, safety awareness, rail infrastructure and rolling stock. It also involves hands-on training at the rail academy in addition to a weekly class at the Newport Community Hub.

This year 21 students are enrolled from schools in Geelong, Berwick, and Ringwood. The curriculum has been developed by Swinburne University of Technology with the leadership of the Level Crossing Removal Project and the Victorian rail industry.

“As we get on and remove 75 level crossings, build the Metro Tunnel and upgrade regional rail – we’re training the next generation of rail workers right here in Victoria,” said Minister for Public Transport Melissa Horne.

Currently, over half of workers in the rail industry are aged over 45, and only 11 per cent are under 30. With the increasing demand for workers with rail know-how and experience, pipelines of experienced staff will be needed, with 3,000 workers needed across Victoria by 2024.

“This Australian first is helping high school students get a taste for the rail industry – which is booming in Victoria thanks to our unprecedented number of projects on the go,” said Horne.

Once the pilot is complete in 2021, insights from the course will be used to further develop training programs.

In 2019, the Inland Rail project announced that it would be providing skills development for undergraduate students along the route of the project.

Construction begins on Bellevue railcar manufacturing site

Work has begun on the Bellevue manufacturing site, where Western Australia’s fleet of railcars will be built, tested, and maintained.

Part of the Metronet project, the $46 million facility will be where manufacturer Alstom will construct and maintain 246 C-series railcars, as well the replacement railcars for the Australind service.

Subiaco-based company, Firm Construction, will build the assembly and maintenance facility, as well as a high-voltage testing building. The 180m long building will include a railcar assembly area, offices, workshops and storage areas, two overhead cranes lifting 25t each, and a heavy maintenance railroad with a 10t capable crane.

“Today marks the start of the return of the railcar manufacturing industry to the Midland area,” said WA Premier Mark McGowan.

Under the terms of the agreement, 50 per cent of the total $1.25 billion contract will be delivered locally. The WA government estimates that 100 jobs will result from construction of the facility, with more jobs once production and maintenance begins.

“In a year from now, local workers will be standing in this very spot assembling Western Australia’s new Metronet railcars,” said McGowan.

The effects of the contract will also be felt more widely across the workforce.

“At the North Metropolitan TAFE campus, just down the road, our specialist Metronet Trade Training Centre will ensure local apprentices and trainees learn the skills for this important work,” said McGowan.

Once complete, the first of the C-series railcars are expected to run on the Perth network in 2022. Previously, railcars were manufactured in Midland up until 1994, when the Midland Railway Workshops closed down.

Bumper year for ARA

Danny Broad shared some parting thoughts to the rail industry about the importance of smart rail technology and the need for young blood.

Outgoing Australasian Railway Association CEO Danny Broad hosted his last AusRAIL as CEO before handing over the reins to incoming CEO Caroline Wilkie.

Broad was elected ARA chair at the 2019 ARA Annual General Meeting (AGM), taking over from Bob Herbert – who will continue his contribution to the rail industry as Chairman of the ARA’s harm prevention charity, TrackSAFE Foundation.

“I thank Bob for his strategic leadership and achievements as chairman of the ARA, specifically the development of a new constitution, leading to improved governance and democracy within the ARA,” Broad said.

As part of his outgoing address, Herbert addressed some of the issues he considered significant to the rail industry.

“Rail is a victim of our federation. There is no one sovereign government calling all the shots for rail like there is for industries like defence or shipbuilding. Make no mistake, this holds rail back, with nine governments to deal with on key national issues,” Herbert said.

“It has stopped rail throughout its history, from the time the first rail tracks were carried. The cause lies in the way our political imperatives play out, it brings a natural cautiousness in decision making. Governments are always in different stages of the election process and rail is disadvantaged as a consequence.”

As an example, Herbert cites the operation of the Transport and Infrastructure Council (TIC).

“This is the forum where transport ministers across the jurisdictions come together twice a year and are supported by a body of senior bureaucrats. Unfortunately, outcomes from this process can only be described as last common denominator.”

As such, he explained how trying to achieve a National Rail Plan is “still illusory”.

“The bureaucrats so often have differing priorities to industry, and they become entrenched within government departments. In some cases, meeting with industry seems to be anathema to them, so progress is at a snail’s pace and this is extremely frustrating for industry.”

In August 2018, members of the ARA met with the council so that companies could present their challenges to the council.

“These were telling representations from our members on challenges relating to skills, resources, and standards,” Herbert said. As a result, the council decided to develop the Rail Action Plan through the National Transport Commission.

“We’ve seen the first cut of this plan and so far, I regret to say, it falls a short of what we would like. So, there’s a lot more argy bargy to be doing with the National Transport Commission.”

However, he warned industry against relying on government to deliver “what we can deliver ourselves”.

As part of his own AusRAIL address, Broad recapped some of the ARA’s activities in what he called “an exciting and demanding year in all sectors of rail”.

The ARA, Broad said, spent 2019 advocating to governments about some of the biggest issues facing the industry.

“We have focused on advocating to governments on how best to address the skills shortage, resulting in the development in the National Rail Action Plan, by the National Transport Commission.”

The ARA has been calling on state, territory and federal governments to commit to a unified pipeline for major rail projects, to allow the private sector to better prepare itself with adequate skills and equipment to ensure contracts are executed as efficiently as possible.

As part of this, the organisation recommended the federal government resource the Australia & New Zealand Infrastructure Pipeline in its 2019-20 Budget Submission.

The ARA lodged seventeen submissions to parliamentary and government inquiries on behalf of the sector over the last year.

One of the key issues for a number of its submissions to government in 2019 included advocating for fairer rules for freight rail operators.

“As far as possible, domestic rail freight markets should operate on an even footing with other modal choices. This requires an environment with equitable regulatory settings to enable competitive neutrality between competing modes of transport,” says the ARA’s annual report 2019.

The ARA also called for an extension of the Inland Rail line, the largest freight rail project in Australia.

“The current project has the Inland Rail line ceasing at Acacia Ridge. The ARA calls for a commensurate project to ensure a freight rail line continues all the way to the Port of Brisbane. Research undertaken by Deloitte shows that building a dedicated freight rail connection to the Port of Brisbane could achieve a 30 per cent rail modal share, which would remove 2.4 million truck movements from the local road network,” according to the annual report.

Among other issues, the ARA also calls for a “pragmatic approach to fast rail that recognises the need to plan for an invest in elements such as modernised signalling systems, passing loops, track duplication, and other critical requirements to increase infrastructure capacity and speed of passenger services”.

“We have been progressing the smart rail and technology agendas, working with industry and governments on improving accessibility, advocating for rail and supporting rail careers through programs such as the women in rail pilot mentoring program and the formation of the young leaders advisory board, a potential attraction and retention campaign and the future leaders program to name just a few,” Broad said.

“I’m very proud of where the ARA is now, and feel it is the right time to pass on the reigns to our new CEO,” Broad concluded.

Train manufacturing re-energises Morwell

Choosing to set up its manufacturing base in Morwell, Victoria, CTEA demonstrates its ongoing commitment to local rail manufacturing.

The town of Morwell, in the Gippsland region of Victoria, is bordered to the north and south by twin coal mines and power stations. The still-operating Yallourn sits to the north of the town, while to the south lies the Hazelwood power station.

When the Hazelwood Power Station closed in 2017, the adjoining town, so dominated by the coal mining and power, seemed to be headed for a similar fate, tied to its legacy of 20th century industry. However, the unexpected resurgence of the local manufacturing sector could be what keeps the lights on in the town and the wider Latrobe Valley.

In late 2019, the Latrobe Valley Authority announced that direct investment in growing local industries is having an impact, with an extra 10,600 people in employment and a 3.7-percentage point drop in the unemployment rate since November 2016.

Alongside wind turbine and electric vehicles, rail is committed to the future of manufacturing in this region of Victoria. In 2017, CRRC Times Electric Australia (CTEA) announced that an assembly facility would be set up in Morwell and provide more than 20 job opportunities to the local community. The facility commenced operations in 2018.

The Chinese manufacturer of propulsion and control systems, which established its subsidiary in Australia in 2012, not only committed to being located in the Latrobe valley, but will utilise local expertise and supply chains, said David Wang, commercial manager at CTEA.

“With the establishment of the facility in Morwell in Victoria, CTEA’s operation has covered the whole La Trobe Valley area where Morwell is located. In order to support production in the facility, CTEA has been employing people from surrounding communities and procuring materials from nearby suppliers.”

The facility in Morwell comes as part of CTEA’s strategy to promote the transfer of production technology to Australia and New Zealand. To begin, the plant covers 2,500 sqm, but has the capacity to increase to 10,000 sqm as demand picks up. Today, the two- dozen strong local workforce is producing critical traction and auxiliary systems for a Melbourne metro project, which aims to have a substantial proportion of the project delivered by locally based businesses.

CTEA is the Australian arm of expanding propulsion and control systems provider for rollingstock, Zhuzhou CRRC Times Electric (TEC). TEC is a subsidiary of CRRC and with over 60 years of history, was listed on the Hong Kong stock exchange in 2006. The company’s global presence was well established in 2008 with the acquisition of UK-based Dynex Power which designs and manufactures semiconductors and further enhanced in 2015 with the acquistion of another UK-based company SMD Limited which specialises in marine engineering equipment design and manufacture. Today, TEC operates around the globe, with over 8,000 employees and revenues of US$2.41 billion ($3.59bn) in 2018.

This global operation brought to Morwell its knowledge of specialised manufacturing management system and insights gained from professional laboratories. For those at the Morwell site, training was provided and coordinated by technical experts from CTEA headquarters. With the successful manufacturing of traction systems in Morwell, CTEA can now claim to be filling a gap in the Australian rail industry and enabling the further growth of local manufacturing of parts and components.

According to Wang, having local expertise in this area will allow for other rollingstock projects to source Australian manufactured components.

“With the increasing investment from the state government and Australian government, more and more efforts have been focused on improving the efficiency and travel experience of the passenger rail market. Over the next couple of years, more and more passenger rail projects will be announced in different states with sufficient funding and CTEA is fully prepared to participate and support.”

This commitment goes beyond the factory walls. In Morwell, CTEA has engaged with the local Indigenous community, and meeting rooms at the site take their names from the region’s Indigenous language, spoken by the Gunai/Kunai people. Furthermore, cultural exchange has occurred through a series of events, including the sponsorship of the local community basketball team, and upcoming donations of books on Chinese culture to the local library.

Although a relatively new entrant into the Australian market, CTEA hopes that such an investment signals its long-term engagement with the Australian rail industry by providing a quality product, made in Australia.

ENSURING ONSHORE MEANS QUALITY

Australian manufacturing has often prided itself on its adoption and incorporation of high safety standards. CTEA has taken this to heart, and in its manufacture of traction systems the company has attempted to lead the market by achieving a SIL2 accreditation.

This accreditation level is above that reached by other traction system manufacturers in the market, said Wang.

“In order to meet the requirements from the client and provide a reliable solution, CRRC TEC has achieved SIL2 accreditation for several safe-related functions traction devices.”

Also, according to Wang, the SIL2 accreditation sets a new benchmark for traction systems products in Australia.

This achievement fits within CTEA’s broader range of products, as one of the truly turnkey providers in the rail market. As rail projects become increasingly more complex, the ability of CTEA to provide not only traction systems but power supply, signalling, and maintenance vehicles as an integrated solution. Furthermore, CTEA cites its relationship and partnership with globally- leading construction companies as enabling the combination of electromechanical and civil expertise.

Such an integrated solution can already be seen in overseas markets where CTEA’s services have been integrated into local projects, for example in the Los Angeles Metro project.

However, Australia’s unique challenges also require a response that is catered to local conditions and delivered by a highly skilled local workforce. CTEA will continue to pursue this approach in the future, the company said in a statement.

“CTEA will continue to invest in Australia to strengthen our capabilities ranging from production, engineering, maintenance and be more innovative with the aim of successful and smooth project delivery to our valued clients. Besides, CTEA will strive to maintain the mutual-trust relationships with the suppliers and also source other supportive local suppliers to ensure that CTEA’s local supply chain can fully support the project delivery.”

Striving for certainty

Donald Cant Watts Corke infrastructure lead Peter Gill tells Rail Express about his biggest concern during the rail sector’s growth phase, and how governments and the private sector can improve their approach.

Peter Gill doesn’t mind being the bearer of bad news. In fact, he makes it his business. As managing director of the infrastructure division at Donald Cant Watts Corke (DCWC), Gill says the most valuable thing he can provide is certainty.

Like many working in and around the rail sector, Gill is aware of the level of rail spending proposed, planned or underway by state and federal governments in Australia and New Zealand. But he is also aware of the frequency with which such projects overrun their budgets and the public damage which can be caused.

He says as spending goes up, accuracy and accountability will be critical to ensuring governments continue to commit to such projects in the future.

“We have some real concerns in the infrastructure sector about cost overruns which can be easily overcome by abiding by the guidelines of Treasury and Finance in Victoria, New South Wales and other states,” he tells Rail Express.

Gill says too often in Australia guidelines are being ignored, and sign-off on the final budget has, on several key projects, resulted in a figure far higher than the original. “The problem of underestimated budgets is created when advisors to governments do not abide by these guidelines,” he says.

“It’s essential that engineering and quantity surveying firms become acquainted with relative guidelines and be required to sign off that they have complied with these requirements. With the lack of assurance currently, some in our industry are hiding behind the inadequacies of others. This is causing governments to lose faith in professional services firms, leaving a bad taste, and it is hurting our industry as far as reputation goes.”

Gill believes that the professional sector needs to work closely with governments to establish a workable set of assurance criteria making it mandatory for design engineering firms and quantity surveyors to sign off when they have completed services to the required guidelines. This means that they can be held accountable when there are significant cost overruns to the original budget.

“We need to stop repeating the mistakes of the past, perpetuating the same mistakes over and over again. Somewhere we need to draw a line and put an end to this – we can’t just keep having cost blowouts because of bad advice with no fear of retribution.”

Work carried out by DCWC on Victoria’s Suburban Roads Upgrade Project meant that the works required were more expensive than previously advised to government and additional funding was sought from Treasury and Finance. DCWC believes that future related advice from the market will prove that this initiative was the correct one.

“Providing appropriate design and cost advice can be done, and it should be done in the very early stages,” Gill said.

“We aim to provide an integrated quantity surveying team, not just to provide cost advice, but to actually challenge the design, and where it is lacking, provide design assumptions and practical construction solutions. We are raising the bar by abiding by well thought out guidelines, and we are happy to sign off that we have done so.

“If I were asked to sign off on the services provided to recent government projects, I would have no hesitation whatsoever,” he says. “The advice that is coming back from the market is in line with what we prepared for these projects.”

A white paper presented by Gill in 2019 suggested transport infrastructure projects too often suffer from a lack of flexible cost options and proper benchmarking and market testing. He told the conference the total outturn cost for major transport- related projects is often underestimated by as much as 15-20 per cent due to these factors.

When asked what it’s like to essentially break bad news to a project proponent – ‘This project is going to cost more than you thought’ – Gill says providing such a reality check is an interesting part of what he does.

“We approach each project by challenging the design and constructability issues based on our experience with past projects,” he says. “We don’t just look at the estimate of costs, we actually take the design itself and provide additional advice based on how we think that design will actually be constructed. And that’s grown our reputation significantly.”

BRINGING TOGETHER DESIGN AND COST

Gill believes that the best way to provide end-to-end support and to ensure a project is properly budgeted throughout design and delivery, is to have better- integrated management teams.

“Fully integrated project teams – rather than a separate design and a separate cost team – we think are the answer to saving time and cost blowouts in the future,” Gill says.

“We advocate that our clients focus very heavily on the constructability and operational requirements prior to projects going to the market. We’re trying to encourage governments now to do that work upfront, before they go to market.”

DCWC has eight divisions in its Group, including Infrastructure, Project Management, Advisory, MEP Services and four Quantity Surveying divisions, and Gill says a diverse talent pool like this is critical to performing such an integrated role.

“We can’t claim all of the success on these major projects for our Division, we share this success with the other divisions. In our experience, such integrated project teams can provide assurance of documentation and cost impact by up to 20 per cent.”

To find out more, visit dcwc.com.au.

Digitalisation key to future of rail

As Transport for NSW (TfNSW) begins work on its new digital systems facility in Chullora, delegates at the Train Control Management Systems conference heard how the installation of digital systems can lead to a rail system fit for the future.

The conference, held on February 20 was opened with a presentation from Joern Schlichting, head of the ETCS programme at Deutsche Bahn, who described how through digitalisation, Germany was building a “fundamentally new rail system”.

In implementing the ETCS programme, Deutsche Bahn will respond to two major challenges the industry is facing, and which are shared by operators in Australia. These are the need to enable the rail network to carry larger volumes of people on existing tracks and overcome the issue of high numbers of staff reaching retirement age. Rather than an end outcome, said Schlichting, “ETCS is a tool in order to think about completely new redesign of the railway system”.

As part of the ETCS migration strategy in Germany, a wholescale digitalisation of the rail network will be undertaken. These include digital interlockings and railway vehicles, and will ultimately provide a platform for the future integration of other technologies, such as automatic operations, and the ability for trains to recognise obstacles and the environment on their own.

“ETCS is not a technology, it is a language,” said Schlichting.

While these technological changes will allow for more frequent and efficient services, the migration to digital platforms is also thought to attract a new generation of rail workers, as many involved in train control reach retirement age.

These are concerns shared by the Australian rail industry, as it adopts ETCS. In NSW, TfNSW is upgrading its infrastructure to ETCS level 2 as part of its Digital Systems project. In Queensland, ETCS will be integrated into the Cross River Rail project.